Gift exchange, also called ceremonial exchange, the transfer of goods or services that, although regarded as voluntary by the people involved, is part of the expected social behaviour. Gift exchange may be distinguished from other types of exchange in several respects: the first offering is made in a generous manner and there is no haggling between donor and recipient; the exchange is an expression of an existing social relationship or of the establishment of a new one that differs from impersonal market relationships; and the profit in gift exchange may be in the sphere of social relationships and prestige rather than in material advantage.The gift-exchange cycle entails obligations to give, to receive, and to return. Sanctions may exist to induce people to give, disapproval or loss of prestige resulting from a failure to do so. Refusal to accept a gift may be seen as refusal of social relations and may lead to enmity. The concept of reciprocity behind gift exchange has been extended into the field of ritual and religion. Thus, some sacrifices may be viewed as gifts to supernatural powers from which a return in the form of aid and approval is expected. Reciprocal social relations, as in the transfer of women in marriage between kin groups, is similar in terms of obligations and types of relationships to gift exchange
non utilitarian. Based on exchange reciprocity. No bargaining and strengthens social relations and integration.
Best around set of socio cultural values ideologies rituals. Example potlatch system of Kwakiutl. Kula exchange trobriand islanders. Malinowski 1922 argonauts of Western Pacific
Exchange red cells soulwa and white shells mwali among islanders which has symbolic value. But brings status. Generally inherited. Local leader Ventures to the next Island while his associates carry out trade. Discuss issues and things. Crucial for their society. social stability. Renewable of friendship. Everlasting obligations of reciprocity. Exchange of goods and services. Absence of men created role of women in in society more. Matrilocal avunculocal system. Red is clockwise.
Portlet system in British Columbia and tribes. Surplus of rice collected by a person and invites others. tribal drink trance and consume the surplus in the evening and by night sit in a circle and burn the remaining surplus point it increases status of the person. since food storage is absent it eliminates rotten produce and diseases. Functional value.
Define principles of maximization, demand supply, rationalization. But on a closer look it is rational, maximize socio cultural gain and focus on kinship ties.