Functionalists like malinowski and Radcliffe brown argued that history begins with writing and therefore studies of evolutionists and diffusionist is not historical. It is pseudo historical based on an return account. therefore emphasis should be on the present rather than the past studies. similarly Levi Strauss suggested we should study the structure of unconscious human mind through the study of language. But in 1920 students of Franz boas namely tooth Benedict Margaret mead Ralph Linton and Cora du Bois rejected theories of evolution, boring, diffusion, migration, function, social structure and other traditional approaches. according to them culture practices were nothing but the character or personality of members of that group. Focus on personality and individual.
interested in why there was similarity in personality of members of a particular group where individual variation also existed. Why does personality differ among groups. They believe that difference in cultural practices was due to differences in culture. Therefore culture affects personality and vice a versa members are reared in the same cultural environment which shapes their character and personality.
Studied interaction of culture and personality on the basis of psychoanalysis. This brought Anthropology and psychology together.
Influenced by gestalt psychology. They deal with total perception of behavioral pattern of human beings. Also influenced by theory of cultural integration by malinowski. They perceive integration of culture as configuration of cultural traits and complexes. These traits and complexes are interrelated and interdependent in an integrated whole. this integrated whole is the pattern or design of a culture and similarities and differences in personality between two groups can be revealed on the basis of cross cultural comparisons of these culture patterns or designs.
therefore culture is acquired, imitated and learnt which gives rise to personality formation. As per this school.
Meaning of personality = Phy + Ment + social qualities -> manifest to others in life interactions.
personality is the integrated and dynamic organisation of physical mental and social qualities of the individual as that manifests in itself to the other people in the give and take of life.
personality is more or less integrated body of habits attitudes traits ideas of an individual as these are organised externally into specific and general rules and statuses, and internally around self consciousness and the concept of self, ideas, values and purposes which are related to motives rules and statuses.
Features of personality
Not just bodily structure. Indivisible unit. Neither good or bad. Every personality is unique. they are persistent qualities of an individual. It is aquired. Influenced by social interaction.
Determinants of personality
Environment. Eskimos different from American Indians due to geography. hill people of India are different from the plains. Different behaviour due to ecosystem.
Heredity. Some people are silent or talkative.
Culture. Attitude towards caste gender race influences personality. Religion art customs literature language influence personality
Personal experiences. Family friends trauma accident workplace affect the person and create leader or 1 hour, inferior and superior, altruistic or egoistic person. Lord Buddha experience shift in thinking after witnessing death and disease.
Psychological aspect of Personality includes attitudes. Values. Temperament. Aptitude. Morphology. Physiology. Need or motivation. Interest.
Culture determine Personality. M Mead.
individual is born in a particular culture and cultural environment which plays significant role in their personality formation and individual adopts material and nonmaterial aspects of the culture like house tool furniture at religion tradition and customs values. Culture tells individual how to behave and individual adopt sculpture buy enculturation and assimilation. She studied three groups - Mundugumor, Arapesh and Tschambuli. despite same geographical region they have different cultures and that's why different personalities.
Personality determine culture. R Benedict.
Believe that culture is personality writ large. study the impact of personality on culture. She believed that culture is not self created but created by men for fulfilling his needs. Individual creates culture and ID individual hands down the culture from generation to generation. Invention, innovation, acculturation and so on form the growth of culture therefore culture is a gift of personality.
Both are inseparable and influence each other. Kardiner, Linton and Cora du Bois.
Edward sapir thought culture not as assembly of elements but as an organised pattern. 1934 essay. culture takes on characteristics of personality organisation. To understand patterns and symbolisms of culture anthropologist should study child development.
Methods. role playing. Interview. Elaborate biographies. Study of family role. Dream interpretation. Rorschach test.
study relationship between culture and personality. Influence of culture on personality followed by Margaret mead
Effect of personality on culture Ruth Benedict
Mutual interaction of personality and culture.
Ruth Benedict. 1887 to 1948. Patterns of culture 1934. Chrysanthemum and the sword 1946.
First study of Indians of California under a l kroeber.The guardian spirit is respected and mould the behaviour pattern of group members and play a significant role in their personality formation. Then studied Zuni, Dobu and Kawakiutl. Social science analyst at the office of war information in World war II. Study the Japanese National character.
Student of French boys interested in comparative understanding.
Conceptof culture pattern.
culture pattern is created when traits and complexes become related to each other in functional rules. Trait is the smallest and single element of culture which form complex and complexes become integrated whole into a functional combination called the culture pattern. Indian culture pattern consists of Gandhi ISM spiritual ISM joint family jajmani system caste system rural ISM.
Cultural traits include
speech and language. Material traits like food shelter transportation tools dress weapons. Art. Mythology and Science. Religious practices. Family and social system. Property. Government. War
Previously anthropologist discussed universal pattern of culture for all humanity but for the first time Ruth Benedict attempted to study culture pattern of a particular group and show that pattern of two societies can be dissimilar.
most fighting have a dominant drive which tends to elaborate recurring human situations like birth death quest for food and shelter, according to its own bant. For instance that among the Indians of Western plains is an occasion for violent on inhibited grief where as among the pueblo of south west the cultural order is is to forget the departed as quickly as possible.
the meaning and function of cultural traits and institutions will be wildly different in in different cultures and almost infinite. for Benedict there can be functional interpretation of cultures but never of culture. Therefore there can never be a science of culture. there is infinite variation that has no scientific explanation.
The culture consists of cultural configuration is integrated under the domination of general master pattern like an individual behaves more or less consistent patterns of thought and action.
According to Benedict integration of culture in in certain arrangement of its content in a temporary or permanent style is called pattern. these patterns combined to create culture as a whole. This whole culture is called reconfiguration of culture. P 313 third paragraph.
there is a common tendency seen in all aspects of culture called special genius of a culture and that genius brings about its integration. Genius can be of two types based on Greek gods
apollonian - peace discipline kindness - pueblo of new Mexico.
dionysian - evil drinking luxurious life. Found in societies with storm and changes. Dobu and Kawakiutl.
Impact of personality on culture
Apollonian personality compares the persons in a group to behave peacefully and in a disciplined manner. Which creates a peaceful culture. On the contrary dionysus personality creates negative characteristics.
Zuni tribe is sober and not offensive.No tension and individualism is not valued rather than collective experience. They have discipline. There do good behaviour. Collective ownership.Apollonian.
Roll big stones to create the sound of thunder thereby imitating rain and thunder which they believe will bring rain.
Kwakiutl. cannibals in the past and opposite to zuni tribe violent aggressive. Dionysus. Do not believe in religious practices and focus on material culture. material wealth determines status and prestige in their society. earn money by hook or by crook. Get rich or die trying.
Dobuans. Hostility and treachery are highest virtue. Conjugal conflicts like extra marital relationships and fights are frequent and public. magic is used to bring harm to others. Deceive each other and break promises.
Every culture has specific dominant drive which is the product of sum total of personality of its members.
in some cultures member aggressive violent extroverts while another they are submissive, and mild. Give the example of Tribes zuni of New Mexico, Kwakiutl Indians and dobuans.
ignore the influence of culture on individuals.
There is variation of individuals among each society.
She ignore aspects that did not fit her model like drunken people in zuni tribe.
in his book and Apache life hue Morris ocular presented theory to define integration of culture. He criticized culture configuration theory of Benedict because there cannot be only two basis of cultural integration but money. This approach was limited in scope and narrow because it limited the genius of people. he gave the theory of cultural themes and according to him themes are those common inspirations which create various types of behaviour in a culture. Benedict provides only two kinds of behaviour good and evil but in opler view
Each culture has differences in the behaviour of men. each culture has its own characteristics and difference is exist due to different themes. Things are like motivations which provides a special design both material and non material aspects of culture.
For example in Chiricahua appache there is importance of male in the culture and it is seen in religious and rituals ceremonies, females are not allowed to participate there for importance of male is a prevalent theme and mail maintains integration and organisation of their culture.
National character study. Japanese studied Chrysanthemum and the sword. Dealt with industrial Nation state and not just simple society. Studied them from a distance by analysing mass media, newspaper literature films prisoners of war immigrants. Did content analysis of data.
1946 book Chrysanthemum and the sword. Used in war.
during childhood the individual is given for love freedom care and cooperation but adolescence is strict and disciplined. they are not expected to break cultural traditions during adolescence. work according to family traditions. Sudden paradox in personality expected after childhood. it is the socialization process of Japan. Treated light a flower during childhood but during adolescence they live like there is a sword hanging on the neck always.
Applied by gorer and rickman on the people of great Russia 1949. They argued that Russian people have manic depression type personality. Mothers leave their children which explains their politics of cold war. Today they are irrelevant.
Student of French boys point coming-of-age in samoa 1928. Growing up in New Guinea 1936. Sex and temperament in three primitive societies 1935.
Used film videos and photography. recorded the balinese character trance behaviour 1942
Comparative study. Puberty adolescence and behaviour like rebellious behaviour. Compare the west and samoans. Less emotional and premarital sex was considered natural. Also dependent on each other for their life therefore fighting and hostility can be detrimental. But in the West it may be a way to prepare exit of child for independent life.
Similar observations in her book growing up in New Guinea 1930. focused on how there is educated role of culture in development of personality of child through different ages of infancy childhood and adulthood.
Freeman question her research and found out that her informants were lying to her and she was given wrong image about the Samoan tribe.
Book sex and temperament 1935. deals with the impact of culture on personality formation. Studied varieties of sexually assigned behaviour rules. Three tribes - Arapesh, Mundugumor and Tschambuli. Same geographical area but culture patterns very different. She found that differences in personality types of male and female in the same society or in different societies is due to cultural process which differs from one group to the other. Therefore culture creates character temperament and personality.
Focused on different orientations of cultures and special reference to gender roles in arapesh, mundugumor and tshambuli.
same geographical location and ecology but different culture population size and demographics.
Arapesh. Live in in protected geographical area therefore members have sense of security and have low population density and good agricultural yield. no competition for resources and no struggle. Therefore personality is peace loving and cooperative. Men and women of submissive which is considered as virtue. Respect for such tradition and culture.
Mundugumor. Suspicious competitive quarrel some egoistic jealous people. Both men and women are aggressive and children suffer. Social status is based on number of wives the man has. Daughters can be exchanged to get more wives. That's my mother's do not care for girl child and even kill them to avoid a co wife. Female infanticide practiced. mother daughter relationship is strained and father son relationship is also strained because when their sister is exchanged for another wife by the father then there are less females for the son to married and it creates a shortage.
Tshambuli. Males are submissive and females are aggressive. females are authoritative decision makers and free to choose their husbands. The meals cook food clean houses and provide child care.
1953 the study of culture at a distance. Studied National character of Americans. Argued that babies got differences due to family socialization school education and the community influence.
Keep your powder dry 1942 who argued how American culture influence personality formation.
Use of photographic technique and tape recorder
Use less statistics and more qualitative data like interviews field observation participant observation and studying psychology of the people.
This is why it is criticized because this method is not proper scientific method. Dependent on the researcher mentality and difficult to duplicate and evaluate. she decided to overcome these instructions by using camera and tape recorder to capture significant behavioral events in their situation context so they can be analysed by feature scholars.
In Har book cooperation and competition among primitive people 1937 she showed that cooperation and competition both were present in primitive society and depend on cultural and environmental factors. Analysed 13 cultural groups for the study. They belong to food gathering hunting agriculture industrial stages. Corporation was more common when there was common ownership of property and competition when there is private ownership of property.
Analysed competition corporation based on age sex status roll economic and political activities.
Competition and cooperation emerge from need to survive. they are the habits that are developed in the members of any group on the basis of Technology. Social structure of the society inculcate tendency of cooperation and competition. Institutions mould their behaviour by socialization and education.
Aruntas of middle Asia were cooperative. Ojibwa and Eskimos are individualistic. Therefore primitives can be both cooperative for competitive and not every primitive culture is cooperative.
Study of National character
Look that Nations as people with cultural traditions. Common behaviour as ideal sentiments interest of the people and their common characteristics form the character of a nation.
National character can be defined as totality of traditions, interest and ideals which are so widespread and influential in our nation that they mould its image both in mind of nations concerned and in that of other Nations.
therefore studying National character of India would mean studying prove cultural traditions like Indus valley Vedic period purani age Muslim period British period and modern India. Also include ethnic cultural social religious communal regional linguistic components and governance. this will reveal many aspects of Indian society like social stratification domination of villages, joint family, Germany system and so on. This will reveal India's national character as unity in diversity.
Margaret mead work along with Ruth Benedict during the war to study culture at a distance. Because they could not travel and 2 field research they studied film analysis, newspapers, letters, propaganda, humour and similar documents along with interviews with immigrants and life histories. she also edited the book called study of culture at a distance 1953 which deals with methodology of studying National character. She studied the culture of Japan and America National character. Keep your powder dry was National character study of America. she found out that children of America Japan and Russia are similar but start to differ after family education and school education therefore culture and personality develop according to National character.
Restudy method. She studied after 25 years Manus of New Guinea
Criticize for ignoring quantitative methods. Applied concepts of individual psychology to the analysis of social process and ignored historical and economic factors. Champion of women scholars.
Nation can be defined as a human group which inhabitants a country e determined by geographical limit, X, traditions, common interests and common sentiments, and when in which are found common political ambitions and desire to be tied in a knot of Unity.
Ralph Linton. 1893 to 1953.
Archaeologist. Studied hawai kinship socialization family ritual ceremony material culture of Marquesa islanders.
Developed the concept of status and role in his book study of man 1936. Also traced the archaeological origins of material culture like umbrella curtains cigarettes coffee tobacco and so on.
Role is rules of behaviour attached to a given status of social position. It can be described or achieved role.
Agreed with Kardiner and duBois that individual man and Society studied by psychology Anthropology and sociology should come together and create better interdependent and interdisciplinary understanding.
Cultural background of personality 1945. attempted to define cultures and classify culture on basis of behaviour. How personality influences culture.
in this book divided culture into real ideal and culture construct classification. Real culture is total behaviour which is learnt and shared in particular situation. Ideal culture pattern is created by philosophical traditions. While understanding of culture and its written down then it is called culture construct.
cultural ideologies and values are Central to personality formation and influence human behaviour. Every culture had a common personality and agreed with Abraham ka dinner on the idea of basic personality. Basic personality is fact that majority of members possess similar cultural traits.
give three concepts. Real culture ideal culture and cultural construct.
real culture is what the actual culture is. Ideal culture is the philosophical imagined and desirable culture. Culture construct is the anthropological view of culture.
also distinguished culture universals, culture alternatives and culture specialties. Some culture traits are present in all members which are universal. But some cultural believes and culture traits are adopted differently by different people like some people use motorcycle others use ka others use railway. Whereas culture specialities means select few individuals or in that cultural group like doctor engineer lawyers.
Sub culture is culture vagina culture like Hinduism and Islam is a sub culture in Indian culture. .
Contra culture is the pattern used to designate groups that are opposite to the prevailing cultural pattern. Dacoits.
personality is the organised aggregate of psychological processes and States pertaining to the individual. organised aggregates of habits, which have been established in the individual, constitutes the bulk of personality and give it form structure and continuity.
needs are biological and psychic. Baby needs mother not only for physical survival but also for psychic needs like affection and love. Psychic needs can be satisfied by 3 responses. Emotional response, security for long-term and Novelty of experience something new.
to satisfy the variety of needs individual can make responses and simultaneous ways imitation, trial and error and intellectual method.
there is basic culture in every society through which all of its numbers undergo socialization and share similar customs belief and traditions. but some individuals bring nutrients in this basic culture and re invent society.
culture learning process. Cultural universal means aspects of culture found in all members of culture. Cultural alternatives means choices with the members. Cultural specialties are found in few members who specialise in it.
Culture is a product of human needs emotional long term security and intellectual needs.
Abraham kardiner. Published the individual and Society 1939. With Linton. Neo Freudian.
Features of his thought
Social evolution is not unilinear. Each society must be studied as an entity in itself
Agrees with functionalist perspective. to understand institutions of society, we must reconstruct the problems of adaptation of that society. How they solve their problems. Like what is the function of female infanticide
social institutions are patton relationship which accommodate the individual to the human and natural environment.
success and failure of a social pattern depends on its consequences if it is bad then it is out.
Individual and society book 1939. Resulted in
Description of the homeostatic processes that operate in society
Description of basic personality type that results from homeostatic patterns of society
Description of culture change.
Develop the concept of basic personality type in his book psychological frontiers of society 1945 with Linton. basic personality means that in every culture there is common characteristics of personality among all members of a group which is the basic personality type of the group. It is an outcome of cultural influences on the individual. Basic personality expresses itself in group ideologies in emotional and cognitive orientation till death.
religion and politics are the screens on which basic personality orientation of society is projected. Introduce basic personality structure. Criticized configuration approach for being too broad and vague. Distinguish between primary and secondary institutions.
Psychiatrist and student of Sigmund Freud. Early years in life were crucial for personality formation.
organised interdisciplinary seminar attended by Edward sapir Ralph Linton Cora du Bois Ruth Benedict.
1939 psychological frontiers of society. Published individual and Society 1939 and discussed basic personality.
Applied psychodynamics and psychological tests to anthropological data. Define basic personality as common characteristics of personality among all members of a group. Some cultural characteristics of personality belong to the everyone in culture. In any culture there are techniques of child rearing, duration of breastfeeding, toilet training, sexual orientation which are roughly similar for all members. Every member goes through similar training and develops common personality.
Two types of cultural institutions.
Primary institutions. Forming basic personality family e subsistence pattern group formation and institutions pertaining to environment economy and ecology. They create basic personality.
secondary institutions satisfying needs and tensions created by primary institutions. Ritual religious belief taboo folktales cosmology. Personality influences culture, here. Day image in the process of shaping basic personality structure.
childhood experience in strict autonomous authoritarian father conceptualizes diety and gods as enforcing discipline and always observing.
Marquesas island in polyneAsia is drought prone. There is starvation and to keep population within limits of food supply they practice female infanticide which has created skewed sex ratio 5 men for two adult women. Thereby creating polyandry. Son and father experience female neglect which creates jealousy among men and animosity towards women. Ceremonial taboos - express underline hatred towards women and folktales and oral history e reflex women as wicked unkind cruel. Therefore food scarcity and polyandry has created basic personality E and if these primary institutions change then there will be change in secondary institutions because personality will influence culture.
Criticism. Could not explain variation and personalities found in every society
Cora du Bois. The Leone of Alor 1944 - modal personality.
Field worker Hindi island of Elore in East Indies. Field work from 1937 to 1939 connected through graphic and psychological data. Used Rorschach test and thematic appreciation test.
Corrected history life history biography and dreams. Give data to three different scholars and all of them arrived at similar conclusions concerning the basic features of Alore personality.
Improved upon the basic personality e concept and used statistic Li most common personality type as basic personality. Primary institutions shape basic personality but there are individual variations with regard to development and expression. Give the concept of model personality which is a theoretical tool to examine interplay of personality and culture.
Criticism. Model personality could not become predictive because by examining model personality scholars could not predict culture
requires great expertise in field of psychology and administering various psychological tests
model personality is not the total outcome of childhood experience but whole range of adulthood behaviour and social interaction. Personality keeps forming in life.