Culture train and complex 1-2

* Hoebel defined cultural trait as, "a reputedly irreducible unit of learned behavior pattern or material product thereof." this does not mean that they are not subject of further division comma but their further division becomes meaning less. Material traits include television watch radio. Non material traits include symbols customs words. Horton and Hunt gave examples of a nail, the screw driver, the pencil and the handkerchief in material culture. The shaking of hands, driving to the left and the salute to the flag are the examples of non-material culture. Upadhyay and Pandey illustrate saluting the flag, touching the feet, shaking hands, carrying Kripan as cultural traits. 

* A complex is intermediate between the trait and the institution: A cluster of related traits is called 'culture complex'. A number of traits when organized together make a culture complex. A watch, football match, attitudes and actions, prayer, Hajj, Eids, agriculture system, market system, a political party, a constitution, an industrial unit, an examination system are the examples of culture complex. Each cultural trait plays a significant role in the total complex. For example Aati, Pooja, Prasad, folding hands and so on are cultural traits in the religious complex.

* An institution is a series of complexes centering upon an important activity. It means when a number of cultural complexes unite together on a certain point make an institution. Marriage is an institution with betrothal, nikah, dowry and marriage party as its complexes.

* Clark wissler 1916. Explained maze culture as a typical culture complex which includes Preparing of soil, protecting the crops, planting the grains food production, festivals and ceremonies around maze. He explained how American farmers have almost completely imported this culture complex from the Iroquois Indians

* Hornell hart 1939. Evaluated culture Complex concept as a research tool. 

    * He defined culture complex as a closely related group of activities performed in a partially or wholly standardized ways which have been learned buy imitation or tuition; it includes the more or less standardized materials, tools and structures by means of which these activities are performed, the desires attitudes symbols skills and ideas involved, and the social groups who perform the activities. 

    * He suggested factors affecting the survival of culture complex : raw material, activities, utility, efficiency, harmonized with human thinking, harmony with other complexes and so on. He predicted how Nazi Complex will not survive because it lacks these factors.

    * He also suggested that while introducing reforms, how culture complex is important. Russia tried to create Machine industry Complex but failed because it did not create the attitudes and skills which are essential for a machine Complex. Similarly League of Nations failed because of lack of basic attitudes and skills of participating Nations.