Studied evolution of culture phenomena. explained how civilizations evolved through various stages. 1962 book primitive social organisation and evolutionary perspective. four important stages in human civilization revolution. Band society tribal society chiefdom and state.
Band society. Small number. Egalitarian. Crude rules of kinship marriage and family. Nomadic. Exogamous
Tribe society. More settled. Larger families than band groups. Rules of kinship family marriage property inheritance are developed. Connection with the territory. Political organisation present.
Chiefdom. Largest territory many tribes. Institutional mechanism of chiefdom. Possibly tribal kingdoms.
The state. Formal institutions. Writing bureaucracy specialisation division of labour
Believed that apart from Technology culture can develop through seasonal migration. Changing the territory or altering the territory ecology. Changing group structure. Argued that ecology changes local population not culture.
Marshall sahlins. Examine the idea of reciprocity and exchange.
Three types of reciprocity. Generalized balanced and negative.
Stages of cultural evolution. Hunting gathering. Fishing. Pastoral. Shifting cultivation. Horticulture. Agriculture. Artizen and craftsmen. Industrial.
Use and abuse of biology 1979 book. Stages of social economic adaptation do not reflect only the use of Technology but also biology and culture.
For example aggression and war. Sexually and cross cousin marriage affect cultural development.
Aggression causes war in society. Sexual Instinct and incest taboo create cross cousin marriages in the culture.