Feminism, Urbanisation and industrialisation on family 1-2
Urbanisation and industrialisation effects on family
Paul Puschmann 2014
Le Play 1872 studied effects of urbanisation and industrialisation on families. You observed rise of unstable or nuclear families said, devar facing moral decay.
Migration From rural to urban areas reduced authority of the household heads. Children left the household at early age. Households broke up and parents were left alone.
Other scholars like durkheim, Tonnies. Weber observed how family and kinship ties weakened, cities were more organised fast paced, bureaucratic, anonymity, loneliness and confusion. Social control was weaker. Individualist lifestyle.
Low age of marriage of men and women. Reduce fertility rate.
Scholars of Chicago school of sociology e observed
Industrialisation lead to nuclear families
Migration lead to disintegration of family. Leading to social evils like extramarital birds, alcoholism crime.
S Mandal industrialisation.
Feminism and family
NYPost 2018. Mona Charen.
Many Feminist view sexual liberation, easy divorce and unwed parenthood as liberation for women. They argue that family is an institution that exploits women.
Institution of marriage has been weakened. 40% Americans are born to single mother. High divorce rate.In US Poverty rate for women headed families with children was 36% and only 7% for families with married couples.
MIT study d of brothers and sisters born in Florida between 1992 and 2002 found that absence of father in African American homes leads to mental health and behavioral problems for boys - dearness ambitious less hopeful and likely to get into trouble.
Alcoholism suicide and drug use is rising among white working class Americans which has witnessed steep decline in family stability over the past several decades. Today many argue that most women want adjusted dependable men to serve as co anchors of healthy and Happy families.
Sociologist Arlie Russell show that men and women on average spend equal amounts of time working but women spend more time in the house work.
JP Singh. Also valid for feminism
Since independence government has promoted widow remarriage, women's right to property, and of child marriage, inheritance law, ending diary, inter caste and inter religion marriage, containing domestic violence.
Family values changing but issues remain. rising female literacy, delayed age of marriage, female workforce participation still 27%, women work in the family is more than men.
joint family is about five percent of total families but increasing urbanization will decrease joint families. Today family formation and dissolution has become relatively faster. Households are headed by younger people.
Emergence of financially independent career oriented men and women. Closer bond between spouses and less kinship bonds. Nuclear family. More focus on children and less extended relationships.
Authority. Earlier with the man. But now role of wife increases. Elder brother and father uh of husband do not play a huge role in many families. More freedom in selection of mate. Rise in female headed households - 11%
Increased age of marriage. Reduced child marriage. about 50% of India's women between 20 and 24 hour married before the age of 18. Cross cousin marriages in South India are declining fast.
1% is divorce rate. Live in relationships are seen in metro cities.
Practice of dowry has declined but persists. domestic violence continues. 40% of women have experienced violence by an intimate partner.
Children. Vulnerable to violence and child labour. Sexual exploitation and abuse. Children of migrants in urban areas miss out on quality education and health. Poverty exaggerate set. Construction workers, vegetable vendors, roadside workers children suffer.
Elderly people are abandoned.
Urban woman exercises more authority. More say in household decisions, children's decision, control aur her health. But working hours are more than men because household duties are women responsibility even today.
Widow remarriage is allowed but still difficult. Dreze 1990 believes widow remarriage is about 5% India.
Right to property is given in the law but in practice many women don't use their right.