Social logical functionalism. Society E maintained by interaction between subsystems.
Subsystem and their contribution for maintenance of system. Talcott parson theory has four processes for society to sustain.
Adaptation. for a society to function effectively. Economical
Goal attainment. Political
Integration. Parts need to be integrated and well connected. Religion
Latency. Mechanism for social reproduction. Family kinship and socialization.
Malinowski. Psychological functionalism.
Relationship between system and individual.
Police anthropologist. Trobriand Islander study 1914 tell 1918. argonauts of Western Pacific 1920 2.6 and repression in savage society 1927. Sexual life of savages 1929. Scientific theory of culture 1944 which had functionalism
culture as an entity comprising inherited artefacts, good, technical processes, ideas, habits and values as well as social organisation.
Human nature is bio psychic.
this nature creates needs for biological and psychological satisfaction. Individuals need to fulfill these needs.
Culture is an apparatus for satisfaction of human needs
Three types of needs.
Basic or primary needs. Basic needs and cultural response
Food Metabolism. communal hunting
Reproduction. Kinship and marriage
Body comfort. Shelter
Instrumental or derived needs
Vital sequence of human activity in all cultures to satisfy needs.
Impulse. Act. Satisfaction.
Hunger point food intake. Satiation.
Fatigue. Rest. Restore muscular and nervous energy.
Culture has three aspects. Symbolic value. Materiality. Instrumentality. Need to study all three. Basic needs derivative needs or instrumental needs and integrative needs.
Function theory . Institutions are concrete isolates of culture therefore need to be studied. Structure of institution. Institution has a charter and there are individuals who carry out certain activities with certain norms and procedures. they use material apparatus to carry out activities and these activities fulfill the function required.
Six primary institutions. Kinship family and marriage. Economy. Political organisation. Religion. Education for socialization. Expressive or aesthetic institutions. Institutions for sale basic needs.
In his essay magic Science and religion. Psychological need of religion.
Participant observation method.
Structural functionalism. Radcliffe brown. 1920 lectures and artical on Idea of social structure.
1952 book structure and function in primitive societies. 1922 Andaman islanders.
He argued that social Anthropology is unique because it is comparative. Comparative science of society. goal of social Anthropology is to arrive at generalizations leading to universal law governing human behaviour. For comparison we need certain concepts to help us compare. Social structure is an important concept with which we can do comparisons and arrive at generalizations.
Study and published African system of kinship and marriage. This book contains examination of African kinship marriage systems. Compare kinship usages like couvade and joking relationships
African political system edited by pritchard and Fortes. Students of RB. Comparison between state and stateless societies.
Compare the principles of duality in primitive societies moeity. Yang Yang in Chinese Saraswati. Purusha and prakriti in Indo Aryans. Therefore bike comparison he argued that principle of duality is an essence of human existence.
define social structure as a complex network of social relationships that exist between persons in real situation. Relationships are complex network existing in empirical reality and dyadic.
Person is individual + social position. Individuals are organic and biological entities wireless social position is husband wife teacher.
The structure is real but structural form is not filled work rights in the book. Structure keep on changing but structural form continues. E Leach said it is dynamic.
study of social structure is useful for analysis of kinship economic structure religious political structure and comparison of society.
Raymond firth sad concept of social structure is too vast and inclusive which diminishes its value as analytical tool. Therefore critical relationship and cardinal relationships should be studied.
Evans Pritchard. concept of social structure is short live with every generation change. therefore concept of social structure should include relationship between and during groups like lineage caste families. Groups continue but dyadic relationships disappear.
Fortes. social Structure analysis has to move beyond relationships and we should try to discover general principles. Used statistics to understand general principles.
due to absence of authentic screen structural functionalism remained ahistorical.
believe that societies exist in stable equilibrium where every institution contributes to the maintenance of that equilibrium point where as marks and feminists believe there is inherent conflict in institutions.
fails to accommodate social change and explain it.
Structure of every society carries out certain activities that give rise to its functioning. Social structure function in in coordinated manner. There is interconnectedness of the past and interdependence of institutions and the system.