Study of speech and language as social cultural phenomena across space and time.
Developed with the idea of structural linguistics Saussere and Chomsky. Language as a vehicle of thought and culture not just communication. Reveals structure of human mind and culture.
Historical linguistics. Studies emergence divergence and dynamics of language. Various theories of gradual evolution and sudden evolution. Chomsky argues human language is continuous and infinite. Therefore language must have jumped at a finite point to infinite suddenly. David Harrison study of kreole language
Structural linguistics. Deals with economics syntax morphomic structures. Chomsky principle and parameter of language. There is universal grammar which has certain rules.
Sociolinguistics. How language and culture interact and behave. Language reveals stratification, believe systems, hierarchy, and perpetuates it. How culture changes language.
Ethno semantics. How people understand and label their social cultural and environment. Reveals universal aspects of culture as well. study on colour classification shows that every language has black and white distinction point important study by conklin on colour.
Psycholinguistics. Understand how humans acquire use and understand language.
Socialization.schiefflen discovered that enculturation and socialization occur with language acquisition. Children acquire language and together culture.
Today linguistics has diverge towards neuroscience psychology