Balanced. Equal value. Barter with each other and at market with outsiders
General. Kula exchange observed by Malinowski. Hazda hunters share the hunt.
Function. Builds community. Trust. Good relationship. Help when needed. No profit motive but social well being. Positive feelings. Discuss issues and interact during exchange. May arrange marriage.
Negative reciprocity. Stealing cows or raiding. Creates Rift and conflict.
Redistribution. In agriculture or horticulture societies. By chief. Stratified societies.
Kwakiutl. Rice burning. Portlatch.
Avoid rotten food and diseases. Social prestige. To care for left behind. We feelings.
Tikopia chief. Returns everything he collects back to society.
A place where buyers and sellers meet. Tribals meet other tribals and outsiders to buy and sell goods.
May use barter, shells, coins, money etc for transaction.
For eg. Bastar market and Pushkar mela.
Other functions : entertainment, finding marriage partners, justice, social cohesion etc.
But today forms of exchange are disappearing and tribals are integrating into money economy. With limited knowledge about finance and economics, tribals squander their money and are exploited by outsiders today. Irulas slip into bonded labour due to death caused by money exchange. Bastar is more economic.