Primitive versus modern economy 1-2
an economic historian has identified three different modes of
- Reciprocity (barter), redistribution (ceremonial) and market
Primitive versus modern economy
Economy is management of resources and involves production distribution consumption and ownership.
Primitive economy. Reciprocity mutual cooperation and social bases
Ownership is collective and concept of material ownership like tools and pottery present and some societies do not have land as property.
production is primary which includes hunting gathering fishing. Pastoral herding. Cultivation. Mining.
Hunting gathering has small Nomadic group called band 6 for 10 families. High mobility. Egalitarian. Simple Technology. Birhor and! Kung
Mobile but restricted to 50 and fixed region. Linkages with agriculture and forest. Livestock is the wealth. Very few material old because travel a lot. Bakarwal and Masai
Cultivation. simple tools and implements for cultivation. Labour intensive. Division of labour. Maybe mechanised. Shifting cultivation. North eastern tribes. Garo khasi jayanti Naga.
In simple societies division of labour based on age and gender no specialisation. In modern societies trend towards specialisation.
Egalitarian. No bargaining. Balanced reciprocity like kula exchange. Generalized reciprocity like hunt sharing among hasda of Tanzania. Negative reciprocity dowry practice.
Distribution by chief ore reciprocity. Tikopia chief Firth.
Modern economy. Governed by demand and supply and profit main basis maximization.
Communist model where state it is the owner of resources. Capitalism where individual ownership present without state interference.
Primary production of cultivation and mining.
Reciprocity. Negative Or balanced. Parents have generalized reciprocity towards kids.
Distribution by the state in form of taxation.