Research methods in anthropology. Russell Bernard. 2006.

- Research design. Experiment and experimental thinking
- Sampling and sampling theory
- Non probability sampling and choosing in formants
- Interview. Structured and semi structured
- Structured interview. Questionnaire. Cultural domain analysis
- Scaling
- Participant observation. Field notes how to take them and manage them
**qualitative data analysis. Text analysis. Models and Mrs.****Quantitative analysis. Univariate bivariate multivariate analysis.**

Research process. Identify problem. Method. Data collection and analysis. Support or reject hypothesis.

**Literature available at various websites like. Medline. Lexis. Eric. Ehraf.**

Sampling

- Probability sampling
**Simple random samples. Picking out subjects randomly. No controls.**Good for general study. Number of smokers in India. Easy and quick. Simple. Unrepresentative**Systematic random sampling. Conditions on sampling like speaking every 10th person on a registe**r. Less chances of being unrepresentative. But simple, easy to compare and construct and execute. Not good for areas where population may have homogeneous features like interviewing people in movie theatres.**Stratified sampling. More representative and can be based on class gender ethnicity.**Represent percentage of each group. So, study within target pool is possible. How many video game players like the colour red. Makes complex analysis and data collection gets costly.**Disproportionate sampling. Stratification population of a group may be kept disproportionate to adjust to the reality**. If a University has 900 girls and hundred boys then researcher might target more boys and less girls to get result.**Cluster sampling.**Various clusters to reach the sample like choos**ing random States then within those States using random districts and within those districts choosing random students for interview. Ho**listic study of large country like India. Useful when study group is spread out. Flexible and cost effective but can create subjectivity and requires good knowledge about out the group to be studied.**Non probability sampling**- Appropriate for labour intensive in-depth studies. Usually for sensitive topics like drugs, sexual and mental aspects. We may not be able to get samples in these studies.
- Methods. Quota sampling. Judgement sampling. Convenience sampling. Chain referral or respondent driven. Case control sampling.

Informants. Key informatics for specialised informants.

**interview method**. Technique can be anything from face to face interaction. On the phone. Videoconferencing. Email.- Unstructured. Structured. Semi structured.
- Gaining repo point probing. Leading the the answer person. Waiting. verbal non verbal responses. Effects of probing. Importance of language. Self presentation. Focus group interview. Type of questions. Lying during interview. Reducing errors. Verifying..
- Structured method. Cultural domain analysis. It is the study of how people in a group think about things that somehow go together. These can be lists of physical things like plants colours animals or conceptual like emotions occupation. Goal is to understand how people in different cultures interpret content of domains differently.
- Free listing technique. Truth false and sentence frame techniques. Triad test. Ped comparison. Rankings and ratings.

**Indexes.****Guttman scales yes no.****likert scale - agree or strongly agree.**- Semantic differential scale.to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events, and concepts.
- Magnitude scaling.

Participant observation

- Complete participant. Participant observer. Complete observer.
- Coding managing and writing data. Continuous monitoring. Video. Short notes. Experience notes.

Qualitative and quantitative analysis

- analysis is search for patterns in data and for ideas that help explain why those patterns exist.
- Data Matrix. Profile Matrix and proximity matrix.
**Presenting Matrix in tables.****Presentation in causal flowcharts.**- Qualitative data analysis.
**Text analysis studying ethnography**. some traditions of text analysis. Intraoperative analysis. Narrative and performance analysis.**Schema analysis. Discourse analysis. Grounded theory and content analysis.** **Interpretive analysis. Understand and interpret words and there relevance in context.****narrative analysis. Discover irregularities in how people tell stories or give speech.****Schema model combines anthropological acoustics and cognitive psychology in the examination of text.****Discourse analysis. Close study of natural occurring interactions.**- Conversation analysis. Search for grammar of ordinary discourse how people stock and take turns who are interrupts and who waits for their turn.
**grounded theory is a set of techniques for. Identifying categories and concepts from text. Linking concept into substantive and formal theories.**- Content analysis. Testing hypothesis from the data at the start but not always quantitatively.
**Cross cultural content analysis**through human relations area files.- Computer help in analysis
- Models and matrices. Ethnographic decision models. Folk taxonomy. Component shall analysis and analytical induction.

Qualitative

- Descriptive analysis using graphic display, tables and statistics. Inferential analysis involves inference from the world beyond the data.
**Univariate analysis**examine variables precisely and in detail and get to know the data intimately. Bivariate analysis looks at Association between pairs of variables and how these associations work. Multivariate more than one independent variable at a time effect on dependent variable.- Presentation by pie chart bar graph frequency tables
**Univariate. Chi square test****Bivariate. T test. Anova software.****Multivariate. Factor analysis. Use Guttman scales.**

Presentation

- Frequency distribution. Percentage distribution. Cumulative distribution.
- Tables
- Graph. Line, bar, pie chart, population pyramid, pictograph
- Flowchart.