Hoppal 1987. it is a practitioner that enters unaltered state to perceive and interact with the supernatural world and spirits and channels these energy into this world.
Connect with spirits for healing, good crops, avoid disasters, fortune telling. In coastal communities of South America he interacts with Ocean bottom spirits for abundant resources. Hmong of Indo China
Preserve culture through storytelling songs ceremony and practices
Reserve ecological balance by regulating hunting and fishing. Tucano of S America
Features of shamanism. Eliade, Turner etc
Shaman may be hereditary or called upon by dreams or spirits. Long training. Hai status in society. Inuits believe children in blind towards drumming. Nagas believe in in dreaming child. Maler legitimacy from the spirits
Spirits play important role.
Spirits may be malevolent or benevolent
Magic can counter the effect of spirits and communicate with them.
Today declining due to organised religion, education, globalisation. But revivalist movement seen in Sakha people. Gosssaiyan in Maler approve them.