Ralph Linton in Study of Man 1936 did considerable work on status and role. He defines status is the place in a particular system, which a certain individual occupies at a particular time. It can be father, sister, Banker, Soldier.
Status types as per R Linton.
ascribed. status acquired by birth or social Heritage without any effort made by the individual. For example caste system in India dalits rs scribed low social status. This makes the social system closed and mobility is restricted.
achieved. Status acquired by personal achievements. Observed in class system. The system is open and mobility is possible.
no society has completely ascribed or achieved status. It is a mix of both. As per Kingsley Davis absolute rigidity create stagnant society E and absolute freedom and individualism will create disintegration of society.
Role is behaviour pattern associated with a particular status. A status may have multiple roles. A teacher is an evaluator, lecture and counsellor. With multiple statuses, a person plays multiple roles.
Role can be
Ideal. What the society considered as perfect role for status.
Actual. Behaviour that a person displays in reality.
Role conflict - inter role or intra role - can arise while performing a role. For instance teacher may not fail student who is her relative.
Role model is an individual whose behaviour is an example for others on how to behave.