Foraging. Food collection point through hunting gathering scavenging or fishing. Ember and ember. 2014.
Differences between today and earlier foragers.
Firstly they lived in different environment which was bountiful and diverse.
Today's tribals not really from the past they have evolved and still evolving.
Variationin their behaviour social structure has been observed.
have been interacting with different kinds of societies like agriculture pastoralists and powerful States.
Australian aborigines ngatatjara described by Richard gould 1960s. Others: Mankadia, Maler Vidyarthi. Socio (kin fam women), eco, pol, rel, tech
Gathering and hunting tribe.
Women gather use digging sticks. Men hunt emus.
Ambush the pray. Spear used.
Nomadic. campsites away from water because it would frighten away the game and cause tensions with neighbouring bands.
Today they live in settled villages. houses have refrigerators toilets washing machines and TV. Children attend school and there is health clinic.
Some hunting is done but mostly food comes from the store. Subsist on government check.
Inupiaq eskimos. Do not depend on plants. Mainly fishing community. but also depend on sea mammals whales and seals, caribou and wild reindeer.
Use hormones from their diet.
Group hunting for the whale.
Attack when seals come for air. women archery animal and prepare it for eating and storage.
Women process the skin into clothing. They also hunt small rabbits and do much of the fishing.
Fishing is done by hooks Spears and ambushing with nets.
Women make fishing nets. it takes about a year to make one. Division of labor.
related families usually live together and move the camp to be in the best place to intercept migratory animals and fishes. Caribou migration.
Network of interrelated families moves in a territory and move outside only when they have to make arrangements with other groups. Nuclear families. Due to ecology and lifestyle. Need mobility.
Today they live in permanent houses with electricity telephones and television. Dog teams have been replaced by snowmobiles. Powerful motorboats. Many men and women have full time paying jobs and by their food. But still hunt on the weekends.
Foragers common features.
Nomadic lifestyle. No permanent settlement. Do not recognise individual land rights. Mostly egalitarian with no full time political officials point division of labour based on age and gender. Men hunt women gather.
But there is lot of variation. Survey of 180 societies prove that gathering is more important in 30%. Hunting in 25% and fishing in 38%.
Fishing community. Pacific coast Canada New Guinea. It bigger communities. More social inequality then hunter and gatherers. Roscoe 2002. higher population density. Food storage. Occupational specialisation. Resource ownership. Competitiveness and maybe slavery. Kelly 1995.
Tlingit ophalaska and nimpkish of British Columbia depend on salomon fish. three tier structure in both the groups with high class, commerce and slaves. Hi status individuals are obliged to give feast and valuables. Mitchell 2009. Infighting among community. Tools for fishing hook, sphere, net, women role. Possibly believe in animism and shamuns. Shaman exist in Tlingit.
Food production communities horticulture, agriculture and pastoralism.
Horticulture. Growing food and crops of all kinds with relatively simple tools and methods and absence of permanently cultivated fields. Tools are usually digging stick or not blouse and other equipment pulled by animals or tractors. Do not include methods like fertilization, irrigation. Set entry point Political organisation chiefdom. Maybe heredity. Polytheistic or focused on ancestor worship. India rengma naga and maria gond. America hopi and zuni. Land ownership and inheritance emerges. Malinowski studied Trobriand islanders. they’re mostly horticulture based society.
Horticulture can be extensive/shifting cultivation. Land cultivated for short periods and then left fallow. Wild plants and animals grow in the region which is cleared cleared later by slash and burn technique. Nutrients are restored to the soil this way. Other type of cultivation horticulture is long growing tree crop. Many horticulture communities also combine hunting and fishing or nomadism with horticulture. Like kayapo of Amazon. They also domesticate animals but usually not large animals like cattle and camel. As seen in North East tribes of India nagas, misimi.
Horticulture society Yanomamo of Amazon and samoan of South Pacific.
Yanomamo. used stone tools till 1950 for clearing trees but now have Steel Machete given to them by missionary's. Controlled clearing of forest by slash and burn. Men clear the forest and in plant the crops. Women also go to the gardens for weed and harvesting. Then they moved to new land after it is exhausted. their crops do not provide much protein so hunting and fishing is used to supplement protein. Everybody gathers honey ee and many catfish my hands, bow and arrow for stream poisoning.
Samoans plant tree crops like coconut which provides little labour and harvesting work is the only laborious task. Banana gives fruits for many years. They also practice shifting cultivation. Keep chicken and eggs.
Other features. Dense population. Sedentary lifestyle more with growing social differentiation. Specialisation of trade like craft workers or part-time political officials and some individuals of the Kin group may have more status.
Techniques used to enable people to cultivate fields permanently. Nutrients are put back using fertilizers. Organic fertilizer like cow dung or inorganic fertilizer. Some use irrigation aur pumps. Crop rotation. Animal labour plough used. Farm mechanization. Varied diet like wheat, rice, olive oil, fish, cash crops tobacco sugarcane. Integrate with local economy. Selling their produce. Social differentiation. Tribe caste Continuum. Economic changes with specialisation for tools salesman farmer. Mechanization. Complex political organisation with differences in wealth and power. Work longer than horticulturalist. Face more famines and food shortages even though agriculture is more productive because of any quality. Crops and people are vulnerable to weather and temperature change patterns of plant diseases. Fluctuation of market negatively affects them.
Migration of labour to industrial and service jobs. Emergence of large corporate on the farms and workers are hired from outside. Technological changes like tractors and fertilizers. commercialization of agriculture and animal husbandry is combined. Globalisation and exports. Serving the market not local use but Global use.
Pastoralism. Agriculturalists keep and breathe animals but only in small number. When communities depend on mostly domesticated herds of animals in large numbers that feed on natural pastures is called pastoralism. Pastoralists eat the meat but mostly do not. Get their protein from milk, blood from the animals and other food items. Trade with other communities for tools and other necessities. interact with agricultural groups. Middle East festival list sell rugs and woolen products to get tools and utensils.
Basseri studied by Frederick bath in 1960. Herd consists of sheeps and goats with donkeys and camels for transportation. Dry habitat. Regulatory migration for grazing land. Move to the mountains in summer and during winter to the foothills. Trans humance.
Animal migration and interaction with other groups. Children and adolescents are involved in hunting baby animals. Milk, wool, meat, leather are important commodities created by them. Traded with others. Women are skilled weavers and spinners. They create saddlebags, carpets, rugs.
Lapps of Norway.
general features of pastoralism. Mainly practised in grassland and semi arid areas. Areas not suitable for agriculture and lack of irrigation. Mostly are nomadic moving frequently for new 50 and water. Small groups of related families. Individual own their animals. community takes decision about when and where to move. Interdependence with other agricultural groups. More vulnerable to famine and food shortages. Restriction of areas by government and climate change is affecting them badly.