Filiation is relationship to or through one's father and one's mother, or the basing of rights on this relationship. R Keesing.
Kindred. A group of persons all of whom have a single relative - ego- common who is not their ancestor. Only person having identical kindreds would be full siblings. Robin fox 1967.
Alliance. In kinship theory this refers to a view of society which emphasizes marital interactions - usually repetitive - between different groups as a basis for social integration and group definition. Robyn fox and N Graham. Groups remain in affinal relationship with one another across generations.
Descent. Relationship defined by connection to an ancestor through do a culturally recognised sequence of parent child links. R Keesing. It may be unilineal - patrilineal or Matrilineal. Cognatic from either or bilateral. Double descent. Ambilineal.
R keesing 1975. decent is a culturally recognised way of connecting the ego with a limited category of persons with reference to ancestors real or presumed.
Murdock 1949 defines family as a social group characterized by common residence for economic cooperation and reproduction.
Levis Strauss and Louis dumont define kinship as totality of relationship governed by rules of consanguinity and affinity. Rivers 1924 define skinship as social recognition of biological ties.
kluckhohn and Kelly define culture as historically created designs for living explicit and implicit, rational irrational and non rational, which may exist at any given time as potential guides for behaviour of man.
AW Green define civilization as a culture becomes civilization only when it possesses written language, Science, philosophy, specialised division of labour and complex technology and political system.
EB Tyler 1871 in primitive culture defined culture as a complex hole of knowledge belief art model laws customs and other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society.
Marina ski defines culture as handiwork of man and the medium through which he achieves his ends.
Geertz. Culture is a system of inherited conceptions, expressed by symbolic forms by means of which men communicate perpetuate and develop their knowledge and attitude towords life
Clan is exogamous division of a tribe, and the members of which are held to be related to one another by some common ties, maybe belief in descent from common ancestors, common totem or habitation of common territory. Vidyarthi 1976.
Lineage is an extended unilateral kinship group descended from a non-founder or common ancestor usually five or six generations back. The person is real not myth Lowie 1950.
Descent is relatedness based on common ancestry
Kin terms denote socially recognised entities in a kinship like father brother mother uncle.
Kinship is social relation based on cultural recognition by descent for marriage Howard 1989.
mciver defines group as collection of human beings brought together in social relationships with one another.
Kroeber and kluckhohn. Culture 1952. review of various definitions. Culture as a way of thinking feeling and believing. Total way of life of a people. Abstraction from behaviour. Learnt behaviour. Legacy of the group.
Dimensions of culture. Cognitive normative and material
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation". McElroy 1996.
Ralph Linton. Ascribed and achieved status.
Cooley. Primary and secondary groups
Huntington. Institutions are stable, valued and recurring patterns of behaviour.
Ethnicity is enduring relationship between two or more bounded groups which perceive themselves as being culturally distinct. Th erikson 2015
Tylor — "Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."
Authority : is defined by Max Weber as legitimate power - that is, power considered to be justified or proper, e.g. authority of a teacher, a police officer, etc. authority may be rational legal or charismatic.
durkheim define religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, things set apart and forbidden.
Clifford region is a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful pervasive and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that moves and motivations seem uniquely realistic.
Need. Malinowski. Need is the system of conditions in human organism in cultural setting that is sufficient and necessary for the survival of organism and the group.
Louis Dumont. Ideology is unified set of ideas and values.
Bougle on caste. Hereditarily specialised and hierarchically arranged groups. It has organised pattern of interrelated rights and obligations of each caste, in terms of status roles and social norms.
Gough. Cast as ranked birth status groups which are usually endogamous and tend to be associated with an occupation.
Srinivas. Jati view.
LeCompte 1999. Participation observation is understanding a culture by exposure or participating in their routine activity in a research setting.
victor Turner 1967 defines ritual as prescribed formal behaviour for occasions not given over to technological routine, having reference to believes in mystical beings or powers
victor Turner 1967 define simple as smallest unit of ritual which still retains the specific properties of virtual behaviour, it is the ultimate unit of specific structure in a ritual context.
According to victor Turner dominant symbol is that symbol which encapsulates the axiomatic value ie it is an end in itself for example for nation has a national flag and the flag is the dominant symbol that stands for the nation itself and becomes an end in itself. Among Ndembu milk provides nutrition for the child and The tribe depends on milk from the breast of tribal custom. The milk tree represents all that the culture stands for which is harmony benevolence nurturing and cultural continuity.