to exploit tribal and resource and forest. Opened road for zamindars contractors and money lenders. Administrative reforms to reduce unrest
Phase 1. 1782 to 1855
1796 regulation I - to formalise reforms in Rajmahal hills by Cleveland to create hill assembly and tribunal of chief.
Bengal regulation III after kol mutiny 1831. Chhota Nagpur area became non regulation area. Wilkinsons rules allowed traditional village leaders in local administration.
Forest policy 1855 by Dalhousie to regulate forest exploitation by private individuals.
1813charter act allowed missionaries.
2nd phase. 1855 and 1919
Santhal pargana act 1855 separate administrative zone.
scheduled district act 1874 - local government empowered. Non interference and exclusion of scheduled district from ordinary laws.
1919 act created backward tracts and schedule tracts - having modified or wholly excluded areas.
1871 criminal tribes act. To settle Nomadic tribes. Pushed tries to crime and harassment.
Forest act 1865 and 1878 curtailed tribal rights, grazing and forest offences introduced.
1894 policy. Forest officials emerge.
1927 act extended State authority. Offence is made punishable. Powerful forest Service and rangers. Protection to officials.
3rd phase 1935 and 1947
1935 act. Created excluded governor discretion and partially excluded areasresponsibility deputy commissioner administered.
1943 amendment called criminal tribes as notified tribes.
Therefore administration was isolation approach. Exploitation continued under the radar. Destruction of Nomadic tribes. Deforestation and tribal harassment. Poor literacy. Christian missionary is free to act.