Donald horowitz 1985 define communalism as attempt to reconstruct religious or ethnic identity, to incite strife and violence between people identified as different communities.
As per Bipin chandra, a group thinks they are superior, hatred for other group and view their interests as contradictory
Causes of communalism studied by Srinivas, s c Dube, V K Srivastava
Historical. Britishers active policy of divide and rule between Hindus and Muslims
Economic disparity. Poor condition of Hindus and Muslims blamed on one other
Politicisation. Demolition of Babri masjid created rift between Hindus and Muslims. So did Godhra riots.
Labelling and creating stereotypes about other communities.
Conversion drives. Rift between Christian and non Christian santhals involvement of RSS And the Church.
consequences. Riots, violence, loss of social capital and business activity declines. Animosity between groups. Persecution of minorities. Create a new for terrorism and outside powers threatens national security. Ncrb data 756 communal incidents in 2015.
Ashish Nandi argues that government should be proactively secular.
Demystify stereotypes in education curriculum.
Encourage interfaith marriages and communication.
In force laws on hate speech and communism.
Sensitize officials and media.
Nk bose. Follow mainstream ideals of constitution democracy secularism equality.