Schedule tribes notified by president under article 342 have following constitutional safeguards.
Articles under bracket
Create a just social order 38
Ensure education and economic interests of scheduled Tribes. 46.
Prohibits discrimination in public and private sphere
Equality of opportunity in public employment 16
Abolish untouchability 17
Restriction of mobility e freedom to protect tribal rights 19 5
Ban on bonded labour and human trafficking 23
Right to religion managing public affairs of the religion 25 26
Protecting culture language and establishing institutions. 29 30
Education in mother tongue 350 a
Fifth and sixth schedule provisions for autonomy in tribal areas 244
Special provisions for states like Nagaland Assam 371 a B
special provisions can be made by State to protect tribal interests 15 4
Can provide reservation in in jobs and promotion 16 4 16 4A
reservation in lok sabha 330 State assembly 332 and panchayati Raj 243
Scheduled tribe Commission 338 and President can appoint panel to monitor travel administration 339
Minister of tribal affairs in Bihar Madhya Pradesh and Odisha 164
Union government can direct states and tribal matters 339 2
Performance of safeguards
corrupt government officials forest bureaucracy industrialisation and urbanisation outsiders moneylenders create poverty point and issues of bonded labour health education indebtedness land alienation.
Xaxa report noted.
Social. Jaunsari tribes face bonded labour. Mankadia are displaced. Sahariya face malnutrition. 27% ST don't have access to safe drinking water.
Economic. Deprivation and Rising casual labour among tribals. Low income and debt.
Institutions to implement Ministry of tribal affairs. Trafford. Eklavya schools. Tribal sub plan. Forest rights act and Pisa act function below potential.
Literacy 49% dropout rate 60% at class 10th and mother tongue ignored in schools
UNESCO language Atlas shows meiti languages endangered bo is extinct
trafficking prostitution displacement processed and uprooting their social networks Saxena 2009
Denotified tribes idate Commission noted their harassment
Group A and B services low representation and less than 5% professor SC ST
political safeguards like Pisa are not implemented properly with the lack of funds functions and functionaries meetings regular and Elite capture.