Dams are temples of modern India which provide energy security, irrigation, regulate water flow, flood control. But it submerges vast amounts of land decreases biodiversity e trees and causes displacement.
Xaxa report 2014 noted
1950 to 1990, 6.3 million tribals displaced and only 25% reseted Fernandez 1994
Baxi 2008. No people's participation and dam projects, environment assessment and benefits.
Forcible acquisition. Inadequate compensation. No or poor alternative land. Description of community ties Heritage and culture
Consequence. Land alienation. Poverty. Malnutrition. Depression. Diseases. Expectation. Harassment. Left wing extremism. Conflicts
Sardar sarovar dam project. Gram sabha were not formally consulted. Rehabilitations was poor with the lack of basic amenities of water sanitation education. bureaucracy was biased against tribals and lack of their society.
land acquisition act 2013 provides better participation, social impact assessment, rehabilitation, amenities for tribals. But implementation gaps remain.
Remedies. Involved tribals and empower gram sabha to protect tribal rights. Skill education and livelihood to displace tribals. Good land as compensation. Rehabilitation based on tribal culture.