Tribal displacement began with colonialism that brought - Forest laws 1878, 1927. Outsiders. Deforestation etc
Development induced - due to mining Singrauli dams Narmada dam industry Chhota Nagpur industry. 1951 to 2000 24 million tribals displaced and 75% not rehabilitated.
Land alienation by officials, immigrants and outsiders by fraud debt marriage record manipulation. K Mishra 2002. Suicide attempt by 50 women. Jajpur odisha. Dte 2020. Land compensation not provided for railway track.
Eviction due to national parks and forest laws. 2015 Baiga families evicted from kanha.
Community Land record as government land. 2017 Jharkhand government tribal land in land Bank
Indirect displacement by pollution deforestation naxalism poverty.
NCST. 2018. in polavaram project tribals got low compensation. Wastelands as compensation. Rehabilitation lacs health and education facility. influential groups corner benefits and bureaucracy is prejudice against tribals.
Effects. Poverty malnutrition poor education health. Loss of livelihood. Trauma social network breakdown. Women status low. Saxena 2009. A ekka 2012.
Land acquisition act 2013 provided for social impact assessment. Better compensation. Basic amenities water education sanitation at rehabilitation sites. Food security for displays
Pesa and forest rights act to empower gram sabha in land acquisition, money lending and mining. Restoring tribal rights to the forest.
But face poor implementation and low political will.
Give tribals right to say no to acquisition.
Limit scope of eminent domain and public purpose in land acquisition law
Empower gram sabha with funds and powers.
Focus on health education and skilling in rehabilitation. And on tribal culture and women.
Tribal participation in forest and wildlife conservation.
As BD Sharma lamented, tribal have been stripped off of the dignity. It is our duty to correct that.