Forest and tribals 2
Forest and tribals 20 m
Tribals occupy 60% of forest cover and live in symbiosis with them. They have following linkages with forests
Economic. They get fuel fodder and livelihood eg. Parang porja earn by selling aam papad.
Health. Nutritions - vitamin protein - clean water and air via forests. Chenchus enjoy honey in forests.
Social. Tribal religion kinship and family life is linked with forests. Parang porja kutumbs - kilo and onthala - are named after animals snake and tiger. Maler worship forest spirits.
Psychological. Tribal identity and emotions are linked with forest A Ekka 2012. Separation causes trauma and social breakdown. Saxena 2009.
Sadly this simboysis was broken due to
Historically. Britishers used laws (1878 and 1927 acts) to limit tribal access to forest and created powerful bureaucracy to stop them. Also, devastated forests for railways navy and war.
Even after freedom, tribals got concessions in forest act 1980.
Development projects. From 1951 to 2000, mining dams industry led to deforestation (70 lakh ha) and displaced 24 million ST. Xaxa report 2014.
Outsiders grab forest land by fraud exploitation and debt. K mishra 2002.
Eviction from national parks like baigas in 2015 from Kanha park.
Consequences. Mental trauma, malnutrition, bonded labour mankadia, poverty, revolts pathalgarhi, social breakdown.
Legal. Fra 2006 and pesa act 1996 to empower tribals and control over resources. Joint first management.
Constitutional. Fifth and sixth schedule for tribal autonomy and control over resources
Trifed to market tribal produce. Tribes India under Amazon to sell tribal produce online
Supreme court in Samatha case protected tribal mining rights.
Schemes. TSP, NSTFDC, Van bandhu kalyan yojana etc for welfare.
Solution by xaxa report
Improve forest cover quality and quantity.
Empower gram sabha with funds and powers
Tribal participation law and scheme implementation.
Skill tribals and remove middleman in marketing produce.
Tribal economy and forest based initiative. Recently, Jeevani drug was created by help of kani tribals and TGBRI. So, it's a good way to follow.
Case study. The Hindu. 2019
Tribal scheme MSP for forest produce increased. Given on mahua flowers jamun Amla Arjun bark. Only 25% of 1200 crore released and only 250000000 actually used. Chhattisgarh only implemented properly.