Indebtedness 1-1


displaced from land and forests, tribals enter money economy and indebtedness begins.

NSSO 2013 data shows 16% St households are indebted and 40% below poverty line.

Process of indebtedness

High expenses : food* marriage rituals. Low income : poor skills loss of forest and land ignorance. Borrow at high rates. Fail to pay or cheated. Indebtedness

Impact. Bonded labour, prostitution, poverty, land alienation. Health issues. Eg. Yanadis of Nellore, Irulas of Vellore, sahariya of baran face bonded labour mental trauma and malnutrition. Xax report 2014. 

Government initiatives

But implementation lead to failure

Remedies. Xaxa report 2014.

Case study July 2019 in express.