Under 1988 forest policy. Joint forest management cell. Guidelines 1990 2000 2002 by Ministry of environment. Forest development agency as federation of JFMs.
JFMCs in the country as on 2010 are 112, 896 and the forest area brought under it is 24.6 million ha, till March 2010. 1/3 of total.
Village forest committees responsible for afforestation, planning, execution, checking overgrazing social equity tribal welfare and livelihood.
joint forest management committee are registered as societies under societies act. States have their own guidelines. Don't give ownership rights but servitude.
5 lakh villages that can be potentially under jfm. Forest survey of India.
Rajasthan Udaipur villages converted wastelands under joint forest management. Increased afforestation and village income. M Baruah 2011.
Benefits. Local leadership. Decentralized planning. Awareness. Forest conservation. Income health.
Gaps. did not give ownership rights. Did not share benefits with tribals. Not enough funds and technical assistance. Domination of forest bureaucracy.
Case study xaxa report 2014
Andhra Pradesh community rights not transferred to the village but forest department. Not successful.
Uttarakhand clash between Van Panchayat and joint forest management strongholds.
B nagnath. 2002. Behroonguda AP. Success. But need financial and technical support to continue.
VS Singh. 2011. joint forest management success depends on autonomy and powers to local tribals. Local Monitoring. enforcement of local rules. Technical and financial support from forest department.
A Jindal. Lack of ownership rights which makes it ineffective.
Nfrac. scrap joint forest management where community rights are given under forest rights act. in other places make a community management as default method and reducing forest department to only facilitator. Which means downsizing forest bureaucracy.
Forest policy 1894. Types of forest. Preservation, commercial, minor and pasture. Only pastureland had community rights.
Forest policy 1952. Protected forest National forest village forest private forest. Village forest head concessions.
1988 policy. State forest no rights. Village and community forest ownership rights to weaker sections. Forest lands with tree cover for benefit of all.