With rising globalisation organisation industrialisation demand for ore minerals and fuel like coal, iron, aluminium and uranium has risen.
Impact of mining. xaxa report 2014.
Displacement. Tribals in mineral rich Central and eastern India Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Odisha most affected. Xaxa 13 lakh displaced 1950-1990 and 75% not rehabilitation
Forest degradation and pollution. Causing diseases malnutrition hunger poverty loss of livelihood, bad education in tribals. Uranium mining in jadugoda ToI 2018.
Influx of outsiders disrupt tribal culture and mock traditions.
Pushed tribals to migrate to slums and cities where they are exploited as bonded labour or prostitution.
Discontent pushes them to naxalism.
Pesa and forest rights act - consultation of gram sabha for mining.
Land acquisition act - rehabilitation participation amenities and compensation.
Samatha judgement - protect tribal mining rights
District mineral fund - welfare in mined areas.
Implement state initiative properly.
Review land acquisition act provisions - eminent domain and public purpose.
Tribal participation and profit sharing in projects
Reduce pollution from mining
Empower gram sabha funds and powers
Case study. Priya Pillai 2017.
Mahan coal block allocation in Singrauli to essar and Hindalco. Violated FRI provisions. Forceful land acquisition. Despite protests. Manipulation of records land records. 2013 again given clearance and protests increased.