Pesa 1996 1-2

After bhuriya report, PESA 1996 act extended part 9 of constitution - panchayati Raj- to schedule 5 areas in 10 states.


Observations. Xaxa report 2014.

Implementation gaps.

So, tribals lose control over water land and forest resources.

Government provides capacity building via rashtriya gram Swaraj abhiyan. But more is needed.

Otherwise protests like pathalgadi and niyamgiri will continue.

Case study. Janhit 2018.
in Chhattisgarh, Prem Nagar gram sabha refused IFFCO to setup a plant. Show the area was converted to Nagar Panchayat to subvert PESA provisions. In nearby areas consent is ignored or tribals coerced to give consent. forest land is diverted and mining is done without consent. Forest department approves forest rights not gram sabha.