Historically tribals coexisted peacefully with non tribals haimendorf 1960. But colonialism brought outsiders, exploitation, deforestation. So 3 policies were followed for tribal development
Policy of isolation. To protect tribals from outsiders. Separate regulation act, excluded partially excluded areas were followed by Britishers. Supported by Elwin
Criticism point led to exploitation undercover by officials contractor and money lenders
Created separatist tendencies like Nagaland.
Divided tribals from modern development technology and medicine.
Not possible to isolate tribals as majority are integrated with non tribals Gond Munda.
Fifth schedule 6 schedule provision follow this policy partially.
Policy of assimilation. Advocated by Av thakkar and Ghurye. followed by religious and voluntary organisations like Arya samaj it can bring fast development, effective use of human resources for development
Criticism point ethnocentric and imposition of culture over tribals theatres their language culture and tradition.
Against their fundamental rights to protect their culture art 29, 30
Creates feeling of inferiority. Sahay 1968
Can bring evils of untouchability and gender inequality to tribals, and Feeling of ethnicity and conflict
Policy of integration. Advocated by anthropologist tribal leaders and seen in Nehru's panchsheel policy 1958
Don't impose but let's tribals developed at around genius.
Simple tribal programs and administration
Tribal cadre for tribal administration
Judge by human character developed not statistics.
Respect tribal land and forest rights.
Tribal sub plan. Trifed. Ministry of tribal affairs. PESA 1996. Fra 2006. Outcomes of this policy.
but in reality this policy is not properly followed and tribals are still losing their language culture livelihood displacement poverty exploitation corruption.