Tribal problems began with the advent of Britishers who restricted forest use, allowed outsiders in tribal areas, started deforestation, higher taxes and exploitation. So, tribals revolted
KS Singh 1985 list colonial revolts as
Phase 1 1795 and 1860. Khasi revolt under Tiroth Singh, Chuar revolt under Jagannath Seth, Santhal rebellion under Sidhu and kanhu against road construction, outsiders, high taxes and oppressive zamindari.
Phase 2 1860 and 1920. Kherwar under manjhi and Munda ulgulan under birsa Munda against religious political and agricultural issues.
3rd phase 1920 and 1947. Tana Bhagat movement under Jatra Oraon. Zeliangrong movement under Rani gaidinliu for upliftment, forest rights autonomy freedom.
Britishers dealt with these rewards by force, concessions and grievance redressal like Santhal tenancy act 1876.
Against outsider influx. AASU movement in Assam against Bangladeshi immigrants. Resolved by Assam accord and concessions
Ethnicity and demand for autonomy by Nagar and Bodo people.
Inequality operation and exploitation of tribals with support of China and communist lead to naxalism.
First industrialisation and urbanisation displaced tribals and lack of development lead to niyamgiri and pathalgadi rebellion 2018.
Solution to revolts.
applying already existing safeguards like forest rights act panchayati Raj act.
Falling anthropological approach and building economy based on tribal culture forest and language.
Xaxa report suggestions should be implemented like integrating local healers and educator's in education and health care system. Participation in implementation of schemes. Reviewing land acquisition law.
Panchsheel approach is needed to integrate tribals peacefully in India
Rajmahal hill tribals revolted Britishers. 1778 August Cleveland was appointed as collector. created administrative plan to establish hill assembly and pension to the tribal chiefs for their support. The land was made rent-free. Created non regulation area. Schools were opened and revenue was granted to the chiefs. Organised regular tribal markets. But 1827 lost its special status
1830. Sing bhum district. Paraha panchayat culture. Ho tribe. British interference and outsiders entered their area so they burnt and killed several non tribals. Wilkinson introduced reforms called Wilkinson rule of 1837. Work given judicial executive and revenue powers. Manki paraha was recognised.
1855. Against money lenders, contractors and businessman. Local zamindars brought in non tribals to boost land production and pe revenue. But santhals were eliminated from the land and fell into debt of money lenders. The courts also failed. They were illiterate and became victims of corrupt government officials and money lenders. 1855 Sidhu Kanu revolted against the outsiders. Britishers suppressed the revolt.
Britishers realised the expectation and regulation 37 was introduced which exempted the area from general laws. Police rule 1856 introduced where santhals can file complaints.
Birsa Munda 1895
Ordinarily khuntkatti. Low rent paid
Cleavage between christian and non christian tribals provided base. Bursa criticised. Superstition, animal sacrifice, intoxination. Worship sacred groves and wear thread. Revivalist movements.
discontent due to exploitation by local rulers, zamindar, money lender and outsiders. Christian missionary is added fuel to the fire. Birsa Munda influenced by Gandhi ISM and educated person fought for liberation and injustice. Started to bring social changes like no alcohol and protecting tribal culture and tradition. He was imprisoned by the British. Chotanagpur tenancy act 1908 provided to protect tribal culture and tradition and land.
He followed Gandhi some but use violence as a means.