Urbanisation and industrialisation 1-2
Urbanisation and industrialisation
Industrialisation begins with acquiring tribal land for industry and promising jobs which many quit. Soon urbanization follows and influx of outsiders intrude tribal life.
so tribals try to adjust to urban life and market and get caught in the web of money market consumerism and middlemen. Jeans and phones.
Sadly non tribals have gained from industrialization while tribals have become distressed migrants. Srivastav 1979 Meher 2003.
Impact on society economy ecology religion etc
Vidyarthi study in hatiya " industrialisation in India " 1970 observed
Rehabilitation of tribals poor
Change in language ideal food and dress
workers from Rourkela and Bhilai intrude tribal life
positively increased education and social economic mobility was observed.
tribals pushed from agri forest economy to market economy
Adityapur and hatia study of S mandal 1983.
Urban crowded slums. Small spaces. Bad ventilation and health issues.
social change. Husband wife conflicts, rising arrange marriages, violation of parents authority, gambling and addiction in kids.
Taruna bansal 2018. inequality among tribals, lack of basic amenities and low development in Ranchi.
Ecological destruction. By mining plants dams.
Ucil mine jadugoda leeks radioactive material which poses risk of cancer and sterility ine tribals. ToI 2018.
Singrauli thermal plant emit Mercury fly ash that cause silicosis kidney and liver damage. Hindustan Times 2018
Religious changes. Declining traditional faith in Mundas. Shift towards Hinduism and Christianity. Caste like features in bhumij.
As tribals are uprooted and face discrimination - Prostitution, indebtedness, tribal unrest niyamgiri protest. Pathalgadi rebellion. Still pushed to urban areas as their habitat is disrupted.
V xaxa 2006. Tribal identity is on the rise with emerging middle class due to modernity reservation and education and occupation. New consciousness emerging. Culture politics and identity 2006.
Land acquisition act 2013 for better rehabilitation compensation and participation
Pesa 1996 and FRA 2006 for gram sabha power in mining land and forest matters.
District mining fund for welfare in mining areas.
Expended Eklavya schools for tribal education in budget 2018.
Future directions xaxa panel.
rights based anthropological approach by involving tribals and used in land acquisition industrialisation and mining projects
Educating and skiling tribals via local language
More funds and powers to gram sabha
Case study. Garasiya tribe. Integrating tribals with food industry based on their economy. ToI 2018.
So, as citizens of India tribals deserve better.