Chalcolithic 2-2 andes egypt Hungary urn

Copper age
6000 BC
Increased complexity of material culture and human activity with advent of plow and wheeled transport. it was a transition phase between new lithic and bronze age when the metal was far superior.

Tools and techniques

Copper was more durable and malleable done stone tools so it quickly replaced weapons, agriculture tools and household items. Jewellery

Copper was melted and hammered  into desired shape. Gradually smelting and casting was invented to purify copper further.

Copper mines excavated for copper.

Social impact. Population increased. Social hierarchy is strengthened. Art and crafts expended. Food production increased.

May have originated separately at separate places.


Egypt - Giza pyramid - trade writing and commerce.

Hungarian urn culture.

Europe. Possibly oldest Cooper mashing site - Prokuplje, Serbia.

Near east. Lead and copper used in Neolithic settlements of Yarim Tepe Iraq. 6000 BC. It disrupted stone tool trade network and production. Fazeli 2002

South Asia. Indus Valley civilization sites like Birrhana, Nausharo and mehargarh. Copper bangles arrow head and blades.

East Asia. Jiangzhai and hongshan culture.

Air mountains of Nigeria

Meso America and Andes civilization had copper used.