Copper stone age.
Marked by emergence of metals like copper and later enjoy with bronze.
Earliest 6000 BC zagros mountain Iraq. 5000 BC between euphrates and tigris sumerian
Tools and Technology.
Agri. Plough and hoe
Warfare. Helmet Shields swords battle axe culture.
Alloy making 2500 BC Czechoslovakia copper and tin = bronze.
Regional variation in India
The Neolithic trend of using polished stone tools continued in this period also.
Microlithic tools on silicious material were very common.
Copper and its alloys were used in making axes, chisels, knives, fishhooks, pins, rods, etc.
Stone grinders, mullers and hammers were used for processing food
Pottery used to be decorated with linear, curvilinear and intricate designs in black pigment.
Floral, vegetal, anima, bird and fish motifs were also used in the decorations.
Adults buried in extended position.
Female figures from newasa and inamgaon.
Distinct urban growth 2700 and 1600 BC
Mehergarh. Pre to post harappans
Very rated village structure with copper bronze iron from 2300 and 1100 BC.
Bihar Orissa Bengal. copper age villages with tiny celts, microlith and wheel made
red and black pottery with copper.
Chirand bihar. Pandu rajar dhipi WBengal.
South India. Tributaries of Krishna river.
Deccan chalcolithic. Hill dwellers with peripheral cultivation of ragi and millets
. Bury in East West.
Urns at home.
Ochre colured pottery
Upper Gangetic basin. B B Lal 1951
Tools. Rings, flat and shoulder celts. Anthropomorphic. Swords. Double edged axes. Harpoon.
Sedentary life. Domesticated animals cattle. Rice and Barley growth.
Some call it free hadapan hadapan and late Harappan stages.
Kayastha 2000 to 1800 BC
. Tapi Narmada basin
Pottery is fine. Wheel made. Linear painting design.
Axes. Ornaments like bangles necklace beads
Houses made of mud and bamboo
Ahar. 2000 to 1400 BC
Agrawal. Rajasthan Ajmer.
Black and red ware pottery
Flat copper celts.
Housing of stone and mud. Un-baked bricks also found
Economy agriculture and animal husbandry
Malwa. 1700 to 1200
Navdatoli by Sankalia. MP
Light red and pink in black pottery
Tools. Celts, hooks, daggers.
or rectangular shape.
Agriculture. Barley gram masur. Animal husbandry
Jorwe. 1400 to 700 BC
Amravati daimabad nevasa
Cultivated Barley wheat rice
Copper axe, needles, bangles.
Absence of dishes indicates semi liquid food preparation.
Red Orange matt surface painted in Geometric design on well baked fine fabric pottery
Facing north extended position. Children in urns
Female figurines. Social hierarchy possible with better huts at the centre.