Early Harappan 2

early Harappan civilization. 3200 to 2600 BC.

Gordon Kramer and mackay argue that Harappan civilization was due to diffusion of mesopotamian people or ideas. earlier origin of Mesopotamia then Harappan civilization was given as the reason.

birrana rao at al 2004 discovery 2016 shows that it was much older than Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamia had completely different script, greater use of drones, different settlement patterns and did not have canal systems like in Harappa civilization.

origin. Balochistan seventh millennium BC. amalananda Ghosh 1965 linked pre Harappa with mature Harappan civilization. He argued there was similarity between pottery of : Sothi culture of Rajasthan and pottery of Quetta etc.; pre Harappan Kali bangan kot diji and lowest levels of Harappa and mohenjo-daro; between mature kalibangan and kot diji.

comprehensive analysis done by Mughal 1977 who compared pottery, stone tools, metal artefacts and architecture from pre Harappan and mature Harappan levels. he showed that brey Harappa had large 45 settlements, specialised crafts like stone and metal and bead working, wheeled transport and trade networks. but large cities and more specialisation were absent. hi renamed from pre Harappa too early Harappa.

padri Gujarat.

balakot on makran coast period 2 is early Harappa. pottery is wheel made and painted. microlith, humped Bull figurines, copper objects, Terracotta artefacts, lapis lazuli beads found. barley legumes, cattle bones sheep goat pig found.

Nal and amri related sites also early Harappan phase.

kot diji 160 km North East of amri on left Bank of Indus. there is early and mature Harappan level. nausharo also shoes clear transition from early to mature Harappan phase.

Gumla of gomal Valley had early pottery similar to kot diji and horned diety  while fourth period belongs to mature Harappan phase

Rehman dairy in gomal valley 3310 3000 BC had trade with Afghanistan and Central Asia.

period 18 Kali bangan on Ganga river bank is early Harappan phase. radiocarbon dating 2900 till 2500 BC. houses were made of mud and mud brick. standard brick size 3 is to 2 is to 1. Terracotta cakes shell bangles, copper objects. pottery sometime similar to kot diji. ploughed surface found. other sites banawali rakhigarhi show so early phase transition to mature Harappan face. nearby sites of early Harappa were siswal and Balu.

rakhigarhi has planned settlement, mudbrick structures, pottery, Terracotta wheels, bull figurines.

social life. specialised craft. traders. planners for plant settlement. laborers. seals indicate trade. unequal wealth. Honda it indicates religion. trade with Mesopotamia main have laddu mature phase.

many mature Harappan sites do not have early Harappan level like lothal Chauhnnu dharo and Ropar. sometimes transition is not continuous. kalibangan has break in occupation due to earthquake. kot diji has major fire between two faces.