Eugene dubois set background for paleo anthropology and study of early human evolution.
•2.5 to 1 mya.
•Found in East Africa and South Africa. OH 24 or Twiggy in Tanzania 1968 1.8 million years ago. Less protruding face and larger brain.
•OH 7 Tanzania 1960 1.75 million years ago small dental size, increase brain size.
•Louis leakey Philip Tobias and John Napier studied and described as homo habilis from Tanzania Kenya Ethiopia Malawi and South Africa.
•homo habilis found on eastern side of lake turkana is called homo Rudolphensis. It is bigger than homo habilis.
•Smaller chewing complex and larger brain. Rounded skull. It Tim White studied differences between homo habilis and australopithecine and suggested that australopithecine garhi was its ancestor because says Jo and teeth are mostly similar. Transition took between 3 and 2.5 million years ago.
•Donald Johnson 1980 discovered skeleton apart from skull. Bipedal short leads in comparison to arms.
•Intelligence and use of tools. Large brain small chewing muscles and smaller teeth then australopithecines. Dependence on tool used indication.
•stone tools are more common in homo habilis sites than australopithecus sites. Cognitive advancement proved by increased tool making and tool used. It tools were fundamental to their survival. Diverse diet.
•warming around 2.5 million years ago increased habitat diversity and increased food resources for homo habilis. Therefore it had died versatility.
•1.8 mya to 300,000. Earliest Fossil by eugene dubois. Trinil Java.
•Large brow ridges, long and low skull. Bigger brain
•Left and colonized Asia and Europe.
•Homo erectus Africa. 1.8 and three hundred thousand.
•Some australopithecines also around.
•Nariokotome, Westside Lake turkana 80% Juvenile skeleton point 1.6 m y a. Turkana boy 1984
•Short arms and long legs. Committed to terrestrial life with fully modern stride. Absence of sagittal crest. Smaller molars and thinner enamel reflecting soft diet. Some had robust bones while others had Gracile.
•Ilret footprints. Koobi fora footprints in Kenya. Just like modern human walking. Double arch, adducted big toe. long distance walking running and hunting very likely.
•Other fossils from Olduvai Tanzania.
•1.2 mya. Daka place. Bodo 0.6 mya. very robust with thick cranial bones and large Browridge.
•Tim white sound linear marks on the left cheek with microscopic analysis it was caused by stone tools which means some ritual cannibalism. Ritual defleshing. OH 9 Fossil.
First hominin migration
Homo erectus Asia. First 1890 Eugene.
•earliest evidence is 5 skulls bones and tools in Georgia by Georgian paleontologist David L - Dmanisi. 650 cc brain size and large face. 1.8 mya. Asia. Compared to African homo erectus they had faces and job smaller and Browridge less developed. But very e similarities in other areas like mandible of ilret skull. Leg bones longer than arms.
•Kocabas village Turkey five hundred thousand years ago Fossil found. Massive brow ridge and sagittal keel. Signs of tuberculosis.
•Sanigiran Indonesia. 1000cc brain capacity with thick cranial bones and large brow ridges with slight sagittal keel similar to homo actors of Africa Asia and Europe. Large brain and small teeth.
•therefore rapid spread from Africa to outside due to better intelligence reliable on on the material and social behaviour. Diverse diet.
•Gongwangling Fossil Shaanxi province. 1.2 million years ago. Well developed brow ridges and thick cranial bones with 800 CC capacity. Animal bones with butchery marks and stone artefact are found by RX Zhu.
•Zhoukoudian. 1200cc. 1920 discovery 1940 excavation. 87 80000
years ago. 40 to 50 individuals. Stone tools and food remains. Franz Weidenreich.
homo erectus Europe. 1.2 till four hundred thousand ya
•Earliest from Western Europe, Sierra de Atapuerca Spain. Cave site of Sima del elefante 1.2mya. Also Gran Dolina 900,000
•Partial mandible and some teeth. Animal bones with cut marks from butchering. Many stone tools. Animal bones broken which means food was processed before consumption.
•Mauer jaw mandible and mostly teeth from heidelberg Germany five hundred thousand years ago.
Homo erectus biological changes
•Increase body size from homo habilis. Heavier. Henry Mark Henry and katherine coffing - height increase by 33%. Mostly changes between 2 and 1.7 m y a.
•Body changes due to climate change and food supply. Adaptation of hunting and meat processing provide better food and nutrition.
•Pat Shipman. Olduvai gorge butchering and scavenging of animals was observed not hunting.
•Tools and social organisation allowed better food supply. So show body changed. Advance in tools and Society E due to brain expansion and complex Technology.
•Acheulian 1.8 mya. more sophisticated and made from wide variety of raw materials into greater range of tool types and functions. Different in variety raw material types and functions from Oldowan tools. Middle awash Valley of Ethiopia shows tools used to kill large animals like hippopotamus.
•Practice anthropology. Glynn Issac matched the microscopic real pattern of tools by watching the animals and they were the same as acheulian tools used by homo erectus.
•homo erectus versus habilis point reduction in teeth size. Face and jaw reduction relative to braincase. Increase brain size. Browridge increase. Thick cranial bones. Body increase size. Reduced arms in length. Increase in length. 650 versus 950 CC brain 33% increase. Brain is energy expensive and nutrition resulted from meat which is protein rich.
•Use of fire point 1 million years ago. F Berna from South Africa -Wonderwerk.
•Zhoukoudian fire evidence. Pyre allowed expansion of humans in cold regions.cooking made easy to chew and powerful Joe and large teeth were not necessary. Therefore middle pleistocene hominin head smaller jaw and teeth. food sharing in social organisation also allowed better nutrition for all.
Homo erectus pattern of evolution.
•Skull. Long low and wide at base point thick bone and large brow ridges.
•More robust with largest and thickest cranial bones. Sagittal keel present in in African homo erectus.
Feldhofer cave neander Valley Germany. 1856 discovery. Hermann studied the fossils and reported his findings. found some RK human features. Skull was long and low but similarities like brain size.
modern man has high and vertical forehead round and tall skull. Small Browridge. small face small teeth and projecting chin called mental eminence. below the neck modern humans are more glacial, narrower bones.
Archaic Homo sapiens had longer and lower skull. Larger brow range. Bigger and more projecting face. Taller and wider nasal aperture. Projecting occipital bone called occipital bun. Larger teeth and no chin. Thick post cranial bones. Eg. Skhul and herto hominins. 500,000 to 350,000.
Homo sapiens sapiens 160,000 to 25,000