Human evolution 2-2
After separation from chimpanzee 8 to 10 million years ago. Wilson 1971 genetic clock.
Six major attributes. Larsen 2016.
Bipedalism 6. Started in Ethiopia Woodlands not grasslands. Changes in spine pelvis childbirth foot femur Linea aspera. Hallux not opposable. Angling of knees. Efficient walking.
Non honing chewing. lack of projecting canines and diastema. 5.5
Complex material culture and tool used. 3.3 Kenya lomekwi tools.
Speech. 2.5. Hyoid bone. Brain areas develop
Group Hunting 1 million years ago. Energy for large brain.
11000 domestication new lithic
Models of origin
Out of Africa. Christopher Stringer. spread out from Africa after 50 thousand years ago. Replaced other populations.
Ken 1987. MtDNA analysis. Out of Africa theory.
There were at least several "out-of-Africa" dispersals of modern humans, possibly beginning as early as 270,000 years ago, including 215,000 years ago to at least
Greece. Phys.org 2019.
Multi regional theory. Milford Wolpoff. Award from archaic populations in Africa Europe Asia. Always gene flow across borders.
Kramer. 1991. Study jaw from java. Argued for multi regional origin
denisova, Flores is, luzonesis.
Fred Smith. Erik Trinkaus. first evolved in Africa then spread to Europe and Asia where they had gene flow with neanderthals.
Recent Fossil in Greece Homo sapiens found. 210kya. Apidima cave.
mt Carmel do exist with Neanderthals.
50,000 years ago species of humans were Homo sapiens neanderthal denisovans florensis luzonensis.
Luzonensis are Pygmy humans with teeth like humans but curved fingers and toe like australopithecus. Philippines.