After the end of last ice age and pleistocene honour holocene began 10000 years ago. Transition phase between upper paleolithic and Neolithic period of settled and productive economy.
Climate. Drastic climate change with end of ice age and increase in grasslands, forest river flow and lowering of the sea.
Fauna became smaller and faster which required different tool kit.
Tool and technology. Microlithic tools arranging to centimetres in length and breadth. Geometric triangular trapezoid lunate etc. Non geometric. Material. Stone bone wood and endless. Technique pressure flaking and percussion.
Social life. clothing. Animal domestication evidence. Rock painting evidence of fishing money and group warfare. Sarai nahar Rai warfare evidence.
Society still egalitarian butt band become organised for war.
Population growth and study habitats.
Regional variation. Sites. Mount Sandal and Star Carr Europe. Lovelock cave n America. Madura cave Australia. Maglesmosian culture in Britain and France. Zhoukoudian China. Capsian culture Nw Africa.
Europe. Austrian tradition, lyngby etc. Surplus horticultural products. Tools like her bones and efficient arrows seen.
Africa. Dryness. Shifting to fishing and fowling. Tools prepared on black obsidian. Handmade pottery. Eg dakhleh Oasis Egypt.
South Mexico. Means America. broad-spectrum hunting and gathering started around 10000 years ago the end of megafauna and climate change led to deciduous Woodlands and grasslands. Shellfish begin exploiting.
Shellfish food became important in Australia.
Natufian culture Mt Carmel Israel.