Neanderthal has phylogenetic status. Discuss in ember and ember 2014.
Fully bipedalism. did not look different from modern humans despite their sloping foreheads, large browridges, flat and brain case, large jaw and nearly absent chin. They had large brain than humans. 1450 cc.
40000 year ago ancestors of Europe have many common features with neanderthals but do not have projecting face as much.
1977 us and Germany study. Mitochondrial DNA study. 25 differences which is three times the difference between modern humans. This suggested that they must have diverged 600000 the go. Krings 1997. Chimpanzees have 55 differences.
another difference from homosapiens. Do not have sophisticated tool Technology. Humans have better tools at the same time.
Neanderthals do not have microcephalin gene that is associated with brain development. Pennisi 2009.
Similarity. Identical foxp2 gene mutations. Capacity for language. Indian Russell infants had the same feature that human infants by the age of 10.
But many genes in humans are common with neanderthals which means our evolution is not linear but multilinear as argued by m Wolpoff.
Coexistence in Mt Carmel. Mousterian tools were very different from origination and salutatorian tools.