when first clear evidence of food production - cultivation and domestication of plants and animals observed in the near east. N. Miller 1992. Term coined by Gordon childe.
originated in the near East area of Israel, Jordan, Turkey till zagros mountains in Iran.
Happened independently in old and new world within few thousand years in areas like China, southeast Asia, Africa around 6000 BC and new world means America and is about 7000 BC. most of plants and animals domesticated well before 2000 BC. Flannery 1986.
developed techniques like ploughing, fertilizing, fallowing and irrigation. Hole 1992.
Food production developed due to change in climate and end of ice age that created favourable condition for domestication. People may have wanted to produce reproduce what was wildly abundant in hunting gathering areas. Binford and flannery model.