Neolithic 2-2

when first clear evidence of food production - cultivation and domestication of plants and animals observed in the near east.  N. Miller 1992. Term coined by Gordon childe.

developed techniques like ploughing, fertilizing, fallowing and irrigation. Hole 1992.

Food production developed due to change in climate and end of ice age that created favourable condition for domestication. People may have wanted to produce reproduce what was wildly abundant in hunting gathering areas. Binford and flannery model.

Domestication of  wheat Barley rice, sheep goat korma horse, corn, chicken camel.


Morphological changes. Shortening of face and teeth. Smaller bones. Larsen and Arthur Keith.

Physiological changes. Diabetes. More caries in the teeth.

Cultural changes. Scheduled life point division of labour. Inequality. Political structure. Population density increases. Permanent villages. Specialisation. Population boom.

invention of pottery and ground stone tools to store and process agricultural produce.

Growth of towns and trade widespread. 

Important sites.

Ali Kosh, Iran. 7500 BC. Irrigation and cattle domestication. Flint tools made of obsidian.

Catal huyuk. Turkey. Religious murals. Obsidian and flint blades, scrapers. Bone based bowls, knives, spoons.

Other sites. Guila Naquitz, mizo America.