Why primates evolved. Elliott Smith arboreal hypothesis 3 requires grasping hands binocular vision for depth.
Cartmill hypothesis visual predation on insects and tree branches.
Sussman fruit eating hypothesis.
First primate plesiadapiform. 66mya. But do not have post orbital bar, convergent orbitals and grasping hands or nails. So, rejected. Specialised teeth
Eocene 56 to 34. Climate change. Warmer. Adapids and omomyids. In US Africa Europe Asia
Clear primate characteristics like postorbital bar. Convergent ise. Grasping digits. Nails on digits. Non-specialized. Large brain to body size. Various diet.
Omo for tarsiers. Adapids for anthropoidea.
63 mya separation from strepsirhini and haplorhini.
Features of eocene primates. convergent eyes. Small incisors. Increased vision. Partially or fully closed eye orbits. Large canines. Nails on the digit. Grasping digits. Short snout and increase brain.
Eosimians. 42 mya. Jiangsu province of China. As per Christopher beard. Dawn monkey. Similar ankle bones. Tarsal similar. Upper canine and and upper jaw similar to monkey. Calcaneus short.
Parapithecids. 3 premolars. Direct link to platyrrhine. they may have evolved in Africa and migrated to South America. Migration across Antarctica to South America possible. Small size squirrel.
Aegyptopithecus. Sagittal crest. Equal size of front and Hind limbs. Arboreal quadruped. Ancester of Catarrhines. 2123. 35 to 33mya
Nancy Stevens point genetic clock shows that apes and monkeys originated in early miocene between 25 and 30 million years ago. Tanzania rift Valley.
Miocene. 23 to 5 mya
Proconsulids. 22 to 17 mya. Hominoidea. P. Major. P. Africanus.
50 kg. Rusinga Island Kenya. Hopwood 1933. fossil by Leaky. Y5 molar. wild and rounded kasht point honing surface on back of upper canine and front of lower third molar. Diet of nuts and fruits. Post cranial anatomy like monkeys. Equally long limbs. Did not have working for swinging specialisation. Limited wrist mobility. Quadrupedal.
Apps versus proconsul is that apps have highly mobile shoulder joint. Shallow rib cage. Greater elbow extension. Arms longer than legs. Large hands.
Dryopithecus. Euro France Spain. Discovered by lartet 1856 st gaudens France lower jaw. Later by mary leaky. Resemble modern apes.
Sharp canine. Teeth long and good for fruit chewing. Larger brain. Brain size similar to modern chimpanzee. Long four limbs. Grasping feet. Y5 molar cusp. 25 to 33 pound wt. Interlocking canines.
Simian shelf indicated. 160cc. Not specialised locomotion.
13 to 8mya. D sivalensis for orang possible. D. major. D. africanus.
Today D. fontani.
Distributed across Europe. France Spain Greece
Sivapithecus. Asia India Pakistan China
Orangutan and syster. 12 and 8 million years ago. Enamel thick. Robust jaw. Because of enamel it was believed to be human ancestor. Rejected by pilbeam 1979 and Shah discovered partial skull. concave face. Narrow nasal bone. Oval eye orbit. Projecting premaxilla. Large upper Central incisors. Khoratpithecus 9 to 6 Mya possible ancestor of orangutan
Gigantopithecus. 3 metre tall 300 kg thick enamel teeth. 8 to 5 Mya.
Oreopithecus. Swamp ape. 8 to 7 mya. Tuscany italy. Possibly extinct due to climate change. Suspensory locomotion.
Victoriapithecids. Old world monkey ancestors.
At this time climate was changing tectonic shift. Himalayas Alps and East African mountains creating. Europe African tropical forests became cool and dry Woodlands and grasslands. Changing diet fruit rainfall temperature.