Genetics 1-2


Life began 3.5 bya.

Prokaryotes - eg flagellum - do not have internal compartments but internal compartments separated by membranes in a cell of an organism are eukaryotes.

Nucleus. DNA. RNA. mitochondria - food to ATP. mtDNA. Golgi apparatus. Ribosome. Cytoplasm. ENdoplasmic reticullum. Cell membrane.

Eukaryotes 1.2 bya.

RNA has AU&CG.

Somatic cells - RBC, Skin cells, Brain cells. Gametes are sex cells - sperms & ova.

mtDNA comes from ovum & heteroplasmic.

DNA - Phosphate + Sugar + AT&CG base.

Inheritance. Protein synthesis. Regulatory genes- hair growth, lactose intolerance like Homeotic genes regulate other genes & work during embroyo development. Homeotic or hox genes determine structure. disorder = marfan syndrome long finger. Hox complex found in all organisms. 

polygenic traits.