Immunological method 1-1

Immunological method

Serology is the study of blood serum, of which an important part is the response of the immune system to pathogens or induced substances. Immunological methods measure and characterise individuals' immune response for research and application. It is dependent on the principle of antigen-antibody reaction.
Antibodies are of 5 types; IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE, IgD. these occur in all individuals but different genetic variants c/a immunoglobulin allotypes.

Gm system- variation associated with the heavy chain of IgG. (also there are Am system, Inv system etc.)
[additional info- each has 2 heavy protein chains and 2 lights chains, heavy chains are diff for each class of antibody alpha, gamma, mu, epsilon and delta resp., light chains either kappa or lambda in any one molecule
allotypes- diff in constant region of antibodies].

Variation in these 5 antibodies is used in immunological study of man.

Antigen is injected in man and antibodies generated are separated and purified.
antibodies studied electrophoretically(quantity) as well as for amino acid composition.