Monogamy in gibbons. Social bonds. One male multiple females in gorillas.
Language and communication
Wilson believes primate behaviour influenced by natural selection
Dimorphism when males compete for females.
Competition to meeting infanticide. Hierarchy among females as well as males.
Hamilton. Kinship grooming activity and cooperation.
Female more burden for food and child care.
Jane goodall. Teach each other 2 cracked nuts.
Klaus Z. Vocal communication and sounds for diff rivals snakes tiger. Nonverbal gestures
Dr Rumbaugh. Consider the app. Koko the Gorilla sign language.
But only upto a limit nim chimpsky. can teach language upto a limit to apes
Separation. 25 million years ago monkeys point 14 million years ago old world and new world monkeys. 18 gibbons and see among. 14 orangutan 12 Gorilla 8 chimpanzee. Larsen 2016.
Aegyptopithecus primate ancestor of Catarrhines
25 million year ago separation from old world monkeys. 14 separation of colobinae langur and cercopithecinae baboon and macaque
18 million year ago separation of hylobatidae. Gibbon Siamang
14 mya orangutan 7 mya Gorilla 6 mya chimpanzee.
Why study primates
Why study primates. multidisciplinary involves Anthropology zoology sociology psychology biology. Robert sapolsky, Sue Rumenbach, Jane goodall.
Language. Koko kanzi
Society family institution of marriage kinship
Vaccination of polio
Evolution of tool culture. Capuchin.
Behaviour and cognition.
Falótico et al., 2019
capuchin tool use mainly features the use of quartzite stones for a variety of tasks, such as cracking nuts, processing seeds and fruits, stone-on-stone percussion, and sexual displays — specifically, female capuchins flirt by throwing rocks at potential mates.
Primate. Mivart 1873
Ungulate. Flat nails on digits.
Brain with posterior lobe and calcirine fissure
Eye orbits surrounded by bony rims.
Well developed clavicle
Penis pendulous two pectoral mamae
Thumb or great ties or both opposable.
Three sets of teeth at any stage of life
Well developed cecum
Binocular vision. Reduced snout.
Prosimii vs Anthrpoidea
Claw vs nails
Tree vs ground. Brachiation and slow quadrupeds.
Brain. Cerebrum small, less complex vs bug and complex
Foramen magnum backward vs forward
Eyes lateral vs forward
Better olfaction. Better vision.
Lack seperate mobility of fingers.
126.96.36.199 prosimii. 188.8.131.52 anthro.
Long moveable ears. Anthro pinna immovable
Less developed facial muscles.
Self made vitamin C vs exterior.
Snout. Wet rhinarium. Vs dry and reduced snout.
Nocturnal vs diurnal.
Diet insects vs varied.
Dental formula u-shaped with 2123.
U4 vs Y5 cusp lower third molar.
Forward movement of occiptal condyle and foramen Magnum.
Tendency for erect posture.
tail vs No tail
Locomotion. ground based living
Producer single offspring.
Longer maturity time for the child.
Separated from monkeys 25 million years ago genetically